Rabies is a fatal infectious disease. Almost 150 countries across the globe are suffering from these issues. The rabies virus spread to a human through the bite or scratches, often via saliva. Nearly 99% of the rabies case happens due to the domestic dog. But both domestic and wild animal is responsible for this fatal disease.
In the United States, every year, 1-3 cases reported. Form 2008-2017 U.S has registered 23 cases. Due to the development in the vaccination, awareness, and medicine has reduced the incidence of rabies since the 1970s.
According to the WHO, almost all continents are suffering from this fatal disease except Antarctica. But more than 95% of humans lose their life due to rabies in Asia and Africa region. The US, the primary carries of the rabies virus, are bats, coyotes, foxes, raccoons, and skunks. But it is developing counties like Africa and Southeast Asia; stray dogs are the main reason for rabies disease.
Cause Of Rabies
The rabies disease is mainly caused by the rabies virus, which generally transmits to the human through the animal saliva from the infected animals. The rabies virus spreads when the infected animal bites the human or another person. One other mode of transmission is due to the licking by an infected animal when the saliva of the infected animal enters into the open wound rabies, but this transmission is sporadic.
List Of Animal Which Can Transmit The Rabies
Any mammal can transmit the rabies virus. But here are the most common carriers of rabies virus
1. Pet & Farm Animals
2. Wild Animals
Symptoms Of Rabies
The rabies disease progresses in four different stages which are
The incubation period of the virus is generally 2-3 months. Still, it may vary from 1 week to 1 month, depending upon the concentration of viral load and location of entry of the virus. The closer the bite to the brain sooner, the symptoms will be. But by the time symptoms appears, rabies becomes fatal; thus, it is recommended to contact the medical professional as quickly as possible after the exposer of the virus.
The initial symptoms of rabies infection are
- Fever generally 100.4 0C or (380F)
- Cough & Sore throat
- Feeling unwell
- Nausea and Vomiting
- Discomfort may occur at the site of the bite
These above-listed symptoms can last for 2-10 days and get worsen by each passing day
3. Acute Neurologic period
In this stage, people may experience these below-listed symptoms
- Confusion and Aggression
- Partial paralysis, twisting of involuntary muscle, and rigidness of muscles
- Hyperventilation and difficulty breathing
- Hypersalivation i.e., production of saliva in large concentration, and frothing in the mouth
- Fear of water i.e., hydrophobia due to the difficulty in swallowing
- Hallucinations, nightmare, and insomnia
- Priapism, or permanent erection in male
- Photophobia i.e., fear of light
In that later acute neurologic period, the breathing becomes rapid and inconsistent
4. Coma Death
If a person went to a coma, it means that death is just a matter of hours. Unless they are attached to the ventilator. Very few people have recovered from this stage.
Treatment Of Rabies Disease
After the exposer of the rabies virus, people have a series of injections to prevent rabies infection. Getting the vaccine to treat rabies is crucial because the vaccine boosts your immune system to fight against the rabies infection. This vaccine is given in a series of five shots over 14 days.
The delay in treatment can be dangerous; thus, it is advisable to get in touch with the doctor as soon as possible after the exposer on the virus. The early you get treatment, the higher the chance of recovery. The Doctor will wash your wound with the help of soap and water, detergent, or iodine for at least 15 minutes. Then you will be injected with the rabies immunoglobin, and the series of injection shots will start.
The rabies treatment has some side effect which are
- Pain, swelling or itching at the site of injection
- Stomach pain
- Muscles aches
Prevention Of Rabies Disease
Rabies disease can be prevented if you take some simple measure such as
- Get a rabies injection before traveling to the developing nation, working closely with rabies causes animal like dogs
- If you are a pet, then vaccinate them. These days dogs are one of the common pet; thus, before having a dog must visit the trusted dog supplies service provider.
- Ensure your pet are not roaming outside frequently, and special ensure to avoid stay animal contact because rabies virus also transmit from animal to animal
- Take care of their food. There is various dog food delivery in Dubai to help you with the pet food.
Inform the local animal control or health department in case of death and sign of infection in any local animal.